still in developmental stage of making a campaign, dealing with very little info and response from players
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2021.11.28 02:44 iamnotbinary still in developmental stage of making a campaign, dealing with very little info and response from players
new DM here, relatively new D&D player. I used to have five players, but after the first session, we dropped down to four, and the rest of us decided to start on a new slate since we were so early into the campaign anyways. so while I’ve spent the last couple weeks whipping up a different world, they’ve either expanded upon the characters they already had or made new ones, and I guess everything should be ready to go?
we were actually going to start this weekend, but one of my players actually had surgery so we’ll have to hold off until next weekend.
my worry is that nobody’s interested anymore, especially after that sour first session with the person who dropped. I’ve been sending messages over the last week or so— my players are all new, I’ve been helping them make and develop their characters— trying to get them to communicate with me on how they want their characters to be. info on backstory, familial relations, goals and aspirations, and how much of all of that they’d want to leave a blank spot so I could make something up for them. overall just trying to encourage them, asking about any boundaries they might have or anything they’d like to see in the campaign.
I’ve gotten nothing except for one of my players appearing somewhat interested when I mentioned that I’d be okay with them multiclassing as they leveled up.
I’d like to mention that it’s literally 100% okay if they’re not interested, and I’m not trying to force them into this. D&D can be a pretty heavy time and emotional investment depending on the kind of game you’re going to be playing, and not everyone is into that. some like oneshots, and for others, D&D as a whole just isn’t their style of game.
is there anything I could do to try getting everyone more involved? I definitely need to have a chat with everyone, but again, I’ve gotten pretty much no responses this entire week especially, and we’ve been on break due to thanksgiving— I’m starting to get kind of nervous about this whole thing, and I’m not sure if the issue is on my end or theirs, or both.
tldr: how do I engage my players while still in the world and character building stage, pre-campaign?
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2021.11.28 02:44 Hungry_Dragon2002 comment a super power u want to have. Then someone will give u a side effect or a limitation to your super power. eg. super power. teleportation. side effect, u shit your every time u teleport
submitted by Hungry_Dragon2002 to teenagers [link] [comments]
2021.11.28 02:44 Aldo_The_Detective09 hypothetical situation
I'm bored so lemme makeup a cRAzzZy hypothetical situation that Im defiantly NOT going through. So, let's say, i don't know, I was being forced to get my hair cut. I know, CRAZY right? Well that's why its a hypothetical, not at all happening to me. What haircut could I hypothetically get that wouldn't be too short, look cute, and not expose me as a femboy. My hair is just barely reaching my eyes, so keep that in mind for this cRAzzZy hypothetical.
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2021.11.28 02:44 Trainfullofcats Why isn't my hard drive coming up? Just installed a new mobo and processor. The solid state drive comes up no problem
submitted by Trainfullofcats to pcmasterrace [link] [comments]
2021.11.28 02:44 KingGalaxy I love all my noodles, but Athena is always a joy to take out. She just hits different. 👌
2021.11.28 02:44 Smooth-Ninja Iron warriors
Has anyone found good counters for good side going against the T4 unit of Erebor (Iron Warriors)? Seems like the bad side has counters because of certain abilities ignoring armor but it's the one troop I have the hardest time against.
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2021.11.28 02:44 nihilistgarbo [Academic] Have you ever had access to Supplemental Instruction(SI) in community college or uni? We need your help!
My research partner and I are having a hard time gathering data. We are trying to find out why SI attendance has practically disappeared.
If you attended ANY SI sessions before the pandemic, please please please help us by taking this survey.
If any of your current courses offers SI (even if you've never attended) please take this survey.
If both of the above apply to you and you can, please take both (:
We appreciate your help so so so much and would love to share our project with you if you're interested!
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2021.11.28 02:44 themythicbitch The love of my life, Owen, who patiently waits every morning for me to turn on the sink so he can have only the Finest Sink Waters
2021.11.28 02:44 SmellGestapo Beverly Hills police and bomb squad in standoff with motorist on Wilshire Boulevard
2021.11.28 02:44 Serious_Confusion237 If you could have one super power but you could only use it on Tuesdays what would you want?
submitted by Serious_Confusion237 to AskReddit [link] [comments]
2021.11.28 02:44 uberfunk1 Nice to see the Jets back in the top 3 of the division
2021.11.28 02:44 idealism_ Ever since I’ve hit King Tower 10 I literally can’t win a single match bc of these type of decks, just constant low elixir cards and mk spamming , no matter the deck I use
2021.11.28 02:44 GOD-PORING Motivation
2021.11.28 02:44 its_amethyst The Tool of the Trade
2021.11.28 02:44 SinisterLevel How do I become less predictable?
All of my friends I play with say that they read practically everything i’m doing before i do it. How do I fix this?
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2021.11.28 02:44 MonotonicO_Music 9 ball blasting with no purpose.
After gaining 4 bil from 9 ball this week only. I learned that it doesn't matter how trash you are at the game. My opponents can have no angle on any ball, ever and just be good by blasting the heck out of everything and can expect the 9 ball to magically go in almost everytime.
So annoying. I set up every shot with perfect cue ball control and win by doing that and running the table with skill. My opponents most times have no clue what cue ball control is and blast their way to victory.
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2021.11.28 02:44 thenemo777 I am at my wits end with this monster. He was our first cichlid and has always been a jerk. Now all my other cichlids live in constant fear of him. One hides wedged behind the filter 24/7 now. We have 5 in a 75 gallon along with some cleaners and he's the only mean one. Is the only answer relocation
2021.11.28 02:44 vineyardfool711 Anybody seen something like this?
2021.11.28 02:44 jenerduh What if Your Stepdad was The Joker?
2021.11.28 02:44 Patient_Jelly_166 I (18) feel like dating is a waste of time.
And it would be hard to be in a healthy relationship because i would either get criticized for every damn thing such as my relationship as my relationship being too predatory and people being too picky. and I don’t find people around my age amusing. Should I not bother or wait later for a relationship.
submitted by Patient_Jelly_166 to relationship_advice [link] [comments]
2021.11.28 02:44 Human_Errorr 50 doge fee?!? What the hell whyyyyy
2021.11.28 02:44 p0ppinsh0ts Here’s how to determine Robotablets dose
2021.11.28 02:44 Marisa19thCromwell Am I playing this game correctly
2021.11.28 02:44 Kaimana969 Book title is Obsession.
The book started out with the mother of the abductor as a teenager, living poor with her grandmother and father. She got her period, the grandmother made her wear rags instead of pads, grandmother died and teenager ran away to circus. She got pregnant and gave birth to the guy who eventually became the abductor in the story. In the future, woman and husband go hiking, meet abductor. He kills husband and holds woman captive. She develops Stockholm syndrome for him.
submitted by Kaimana969 to whatsthatbook [link] [comments]
2021.11.28 02:44 TribeofYHWH Jesus was Prophesied 500+ Years Before He Ever Lived in the Book of Isaiah
In Isaiah, the Messiah would:
- Be born of a young virgin (Isa. 7:14). For recent groundbreaking evidence of the virginity of the mother of Immanuel in Isa. 7:14, see Christophe Rico here and (briefly) below;
- Be born during a time of want and adversity in the land of Israel due to destruction and invasion (Isa. 7:15-16);
- Be called YHWH (God) Himself (Isa. 9:6) and be YHWH (God) Himself (Isa. 7:14; 11:10; 52:13);
- Will be known for the miraculous (Isa. 9:6). The "Son" here is called "wonderful counselor" in most translations. Wonderful is descriptive of "counselor." The English word "wonderful" is watered down though. Regarding the Hebrew word for "wonderful," H.G.M. Williamson says "we need to understand it here in its fuller sense, which may certainly include, but is not narrowly limited to, the miraculous" (Isaiah 6-12 [ICC, 2018], pp. 399).
- Be a light to the gentiles and the nations (Isa. 9:1-2; 11:10, 12; 42:4, 6; 49:1, 6; 52:13; 53:11-12) so that God's "salvation may reach to the end of the earth." (Isa. 49:6). Thus, "the coastlands wait for his teaching" (Isa. 42:4; cf. 49:1);
- Be associated with Nazareth in Galilee - "Jesus of Nazareth." The Messiah in Isa. 11:1 is associated with "branch" imagery. The Hebrew word for "branch" or "scion" in Isa. 11:1 is neṣer. As Christophe Rico points out in The Mother of the Infant King, there is a striking connection between the word neṣer and the ancient historical town of Nazareth, where they have the same root letters - נצר. This isn't decisive, but suggestive, especially when viewed in light of the surrounding points here
- Be just, righteous, and without deceit (Isa. 7:15; 9:6-7; 11:2-5; 42:2-4; 53:9, 11);
- Initiate a new covenant (Isa. 42:6; cf. Jer. 31:31-34);
- Be recognized by the kings and princes of the nations after initially being ignored by them (Isa. 49:7; 52:15);
- Initially fail in his mission to preach to Israel (Isa. 49:4);
- Be physically abused (Isa. 50:6; 53:5);
- Be rejected by the Jewish people and others (Isa. 53:2-4). As noted below, the speaker in Isaiah 53 has to be the Jewish people as per the original intent of the author, whether one likes it or not. Here, the authoprophet speaks on behalf of Israel's people who says that the Servant "had no form or majesty that we should look at him, nothing in his appearance that we should desire him," and that "we held him of no account." Many Jewish people are expecting and have always expected a warrior like Messiah (though obviously not all, as ancient and modern Judaism isn't a monolith). Jesus wasn't and isn't this to them. That's why ancient Messianic interpretations of the Servant turned the Servant into a warrior Messiah (see e.g., the Parables of Enoch; Isaiah Targum). This is thus an amazing prophecy fulfilled.
- Be pierced, killed, and buried for the sins of the world (Isa. 53:5-12). The “many nations” of 52:13-15 is included in "the many” of 53:11-12 where the Servant makes them righteous and will bear and פָגַע (“intervene/intercede”) for their sins. James P. Ware writes that: "through literary recurrence the Song thus links both the illumination of the “many nations” in 52:13-15, and the first-person confession of Israel in 53:1-9, with the description of the Servant’s redemption of the “many” in the closing divine oracle in 53:10-12 . . . by the close of the poem, the reader comprehends that the “many” of the climactic final oracle (53:10-12) includes both Israel and the gentiles" (Ware, Paul and the Mission of the Church, Philippians in Ancient Jewish Context, pp. 77). Thus, the Servant truly does bear the sins of the world in Deutero-Isaiah's original context.
- Have followers after him (whom he "sees" post-mortem). The "offspring" in 53:10 do not refer to literal children, according to most scholars, but rather those redeemed by the Servant. They are called the “servants" of the Servant; cf. Isa 54:17; 56:6; 65:8, 9, 13-15; 66:14. They are also called the “offspring" of the Servant; cf. Isa 59:21; 61:8-9; 65:9, 23; 66:22. A community that follows the servant can be seen as early as Isa. 50:4-11. James P. Ware writes: "the offspring of the Servant . . . not only follows him but also imitates him, in some mysterious fashion taking up his vocation of suffering, participating in his redemptive mission, and sharing in his victory (Isa 57:1–13; 59:9–21; 65:8–16; 66:1–5). The Servant’s role as a “light to the nations” (42:6; 49:6) is thus taken up and extended by the servants of the Servant (Isa 63:1–3, 19–22; 62:1–3)" (Ware, "The Servants of the Servant in Isaiah and Philippians," in Isaiah's Servants in Early Judaism and Christianity: The Isaian Servant and the Exegetical Formation of Community Identity, Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen, 2021, pp. 261). As made evident by Isaiah 56:6-8 (and elsewhere), the "servants" include gentiles (cf. Isa. 56:1-8). They are also given an "everlasting," "new," and "different" name (cf. Isa. 56:6; 62:2; 65:15).
- Be brought back to life from the dead (Isa. 53:10-11). James P. Ware writes: "that the Servant is portrayed in the fourth Song as restored from death to life is recognized by the majority of interpreters. The text is explicit that following his demise the Servant “will prolong days” (53:10) and “will see light” (53:11)." (James P. Ware, Paul and the Mission of the Church, Philippians in Ancient Jewish Context, 2011, pp. 75).
Etcetera. Everything below this will be to support most of the contentions above (aside form those which can be easily verifiable by a quick google search).
The Existence of Isaiah son of Amoz
There are many good argument to think that there was a historical Isaiah of Jerusalem. One can ascertain this just from the writings from book of Isaiah itself. See for example Jaap Dekker (Leiden: Brill, 2009
) to see how this can be done. But aside from the Bible itself, the strongest and most direct evidence for Isaiah the prophet comes from archaeology
, and it is the (likely) seal of Isaiah himself, something that was found just ten feet away from the bulla of King Hezekiah. The seal says "belong to Isaiah nvy
." This isn't proof of his existence, since the location of where the aleph would be to render the letters on the seal as "prophet" at the end is damaged. There have also been three other "Isaiah's" found archeologically speaking in ancient Israel. However, given the combination of letters that are
"), where an aleph in the damaged portion of the seal would render the word "prophet," and (especially) given the proximity of this Isaiah seal just three meters away from Hezekiah's bulla, is extremely suggestive and good evidence.
Manuscripts of 'Isaiah'
We have multiple scrolls of Isaiah that have been dated. The famous Isaiah scroll (1QIsaa
), which encompasses the entirety of the book of Isaiah (minus a few damaged portions) has been dated hundreds of years before Jesus ever lived by both paleography and science (radiocarbon dating). See also 1QIsab
and other manuscripts as well that date before 70 CE (e.g., 4QIsad
Typological Fulfillment Vs. Direct Prophecy In the Eyes of the NT Authors
In the view of the Gospel authors, there was a difference between "typological fulfillment" (events or people that the NT authors think serve as a model or pattern for what will happen in a greater event or person at a later time), and a fulfillment of a direct prophecy. When a prophecy is fulfilled, the authors in the NT never clarify whether they think a given text is a 'direct prediction' or a 'typological prediction.' While this does make things less straightforward, the author applying texts like Hosea 11:1 (and others) out of their original context was not deceptive (it was common in ancient Jewish interpretation too), and it doesn't preclude genuine prophetic fulfillment. \
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________) The Immanuel Oracle (Isaiah 7)
When Assyria continued to march westward in the year 734 B.C.E., Ephraim and Syria wanted Judah to form an alliance with them to defend against the Assyrian swarm. When Judah refused, Ephraim and Syria (known as "Aram") teamed up against Judah so they could lay a siege against it and install a puppet King, "the son of Tabeel." While Ahaz and his people fear (Isa. 7:2), Isaiah and his son is sent to Ahaz to encourage him to have complete trust in YHWH (v. 3-6), with v. 6-9 announcing the failure of Judah's enemies. Isaiah 7:10-13
In v. 10-11, Isaiah says YHWH encouraged Ahaz to ask for a sign "as deep as Sheol or high as heaven," but Ahaz refused, and v. 12 gives the reason: "I will not ask, and I will not put the LORD to the test." The imperative verbs are all second person masculine singular in form, as well as two pronouns. V. 13 than switches to the second person plural, indicating that the sign is for the ENTIRE Davidic house, not just for Ahaz in particular (v. 13 thus alludes to v. 9b, which also uses the plural). This switch from the referent being Ahaz in v. 12 to the entire dynasty of the House of David in v. 13 after Ahaz refused the sign
is key. Peter J. Gentry explains:
The quoted speech [in v. 13] begins as follows: “Hear O House of David, is it too trivial for you humans that weary my God?” The two verbs, “hear” (וּעמשׁ) and “you must weary” (וּאלתּ) are second person plural in form. The one pronoun employed with the infinitive “to weary” is also second person plural. Yahweh/Isaiah is no longer addressing Ahaz directly or specifically; he is addressing the entire dynasty of David: past, present, and future—the whole House of David. The pronoun in verse 14 is also second masculine plural in form. The sign in verse 11 was offered specifically to Ahaz. Ahaz declined. In spite of Ahaz’s response, Yahweh gave a sign. The sign he gave was for the entire family line of David and is therefore not at all tied to the time of Ahaz.
(Peter J. Gentry, "Isaiah 7:12-16—A Direct Prediction of a Distant Future Relative to Isaiah’s Time?," in The Mother of the Infant King
[Wipf and Stock Publishers, 2020], pp. 188).
So Isa. 7's sign spans the entire history of the remaining Davidic family tree, something that will be clarified in Isa. 11:1. Verses 15-16a continue to speak in the third person masculine singular about the promised boy. Then, suddenly, v. 16b switches to second masculine singular in form, once again addressing specifically Ahaz and his days again, including what follows (v. 17-25).
Isaiah 7:14: The Virginity of Immanuel's Mother Christophe Rico
in a recent monograph argues that ‘almāh
means "young virgin," distinct from betûlāh
, which refers to a virgin of any age. This overcomes, by far, the most weighty and frequent objection made to the meaning of ‘almāh
denoting virginity, which is: what would distinguish ‘almāh
meant "virgin"? The key is that ‘almāh
virgin." Many different languages from all different types of family languages have a distinction between ‘girl,' ‘virgin’ and ‘young virgin' (e.g., Arabic [fatâ’ah
]; Catalan [noia
]; Russian [devuška
]), so it isn't hard to believe that the same set of distinctions existed in ancient Hebrew before ‘almāh
eventually became a technical musical term later on (as Rico argues). For the full case for "young virgin," see Rico's full book. Rico claims to make arguments regarding ‘almāh
purely as a linguist.
A key point though is that the birth of Immanuel is a "sign" (’ôt
). While it is true that ’ôt
doesn't necessarily denote anything miraculous, the context and use of ’ôt
- The verb ’nissâ ("to test") occurs in the context of Isa. 7:14 (cf. v. 12). As Rico points out, when used in the context of a sign request, the verb nissâ occurs in only one other place in the Bible. That occurrence is found in the Midian episode with Gideon (see the use in Judg. 6:39), where the sign is miraculous. The use of the verb nissâ in the context of Isa. 7:14 thus suggests that the sign is meant to be miraculous as well. There are striking parallels to this story in Judges with the oracles of Isaiah 7-11, which strengthen this link with Isa. 7 and the Gideon episodes. See my this post for the parallels.
- Mark D. Schutzius (II) argues in The Hebrew Word for 'sign' and Its Impact on Isaiah 7:14 (Wipf and Stock Publishers, 2015) that every miraculous use of the word ’ôt has YHWH specifically provide the sign. Instructive is Isa. 38:7 ("This is the sign to you from the LORD . . ."), where the sign is miraculous. Contrary to verses like this, uses of the word ’ôt that aren't miraculous do not come directly from YHWH. Rather, they describe God designating ordinary people, things, or events as "signs" (e.g., Gen. 1:14; 9:11-17; 17:11; Exod. 3:11-12; 12:7-13; Num. 2:2; 16:38; Ezek. 14:8). If ’ôt in 7:14 did not denote a miracle, it would be far out of step with the typical usage of ’ôt where YHWH says he provided it.
"Immanuel" in Isaiah 7:14
"Immanuel" isn't the actual historical name that the Son will be given (just like actual historical name of the "Son" of Isaiah 9 that is to be born isn't 'Peleʾ yōʿēṣ ʾēl gībbōr ʾáḇī-ʿaḏ śar-šālōm
,' "Wonderful Counselor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace"). Saying this is a failed prophecy because Jesus wasn't named 'Immanuel' is to miss the point of the name in Isaiah original context.
Peter J. Gentry summarizes the child “eating curds and honey" (Isa. 7:15):
The fact that the child will eat curds and honey means that the land will be dominated by pastoralists and not farmers. This is an indication of the devastation and destruction resulting in exile and the conquest by the Assyrians and Babylonians.
(Gentry, "Isaiah 7:12-16," pp. 215)
The negative use of this same terminology in used 7:21-22 suggests that this analysis of the curds and honey is correct. The Immanuel boy within Isa. 7 is to be born beyond
the immediate future during the aftermath of destruction
, for Isa. 7:15's curds and honey "signifies the aftermath of catastrophe and the disruption of a thriving agricultural society" (Etan Levine, “The Land of Milk and Honey,” Journal for the Study of the Old Testament, 2000
, pp. 57). So construed, Immanuel eating curds and honey means that he will be born during a time of want and adversity in Israel. This fits Jesus' time and place.
Many point to Isa. 7:16 for the imminence of the Immanuel boy. But this v. is hard to render. It is thus immature to speak about the imminence of the birth of Immanuel from this alone. Peter J. Gentry correctly argues
The pronoun on the suffixed noun, “her kings” must refer to “land” since the pronoun is feminine singular . . . The two kings cannot be the King of Israel and the King of Aram . . . because one could not say of them, that “the land had two kings."
Gentry interprets the two kings as that of Northern Israel and
Judah, which would expand the horizon of the oracle. One doesn't have to agree with Gentry's translation of v. 16 to recognize that the NRSV contradicts Hebrew grammar though.
H.G.M. Williamson has "before whose two kings you are in dread
but thinks that it is an interpolation. Williamson than writes in what relates to Gentry's point:
It is incongruous to have one land mentioned with two kings . . . (ibid., 168).
Thus, in ibid.
, 167 Williamson translates the earliest text behind the current oracle in v. 16 as:
For before the lad knows to reject the bad and choose the good, the land will be abandoned.
This also may imply that Judah will be deserted (with no decisive temporal indictor).
Christophe Rico, in his book The Mother of the Infant King
(Wipf and Stock Publishers, 2020), pp. 144-147 argues that the v. should be translated as:
Before [Immanuel] knows to reject evil and to choose good the land which disgusts you because of its two kings will be abandoned.
Rico's translation is most supported by the versions and I agree with it. "The text implies that the country would be emptied of its inhabitants" (ibid.
, 147). This broadens the horizon of this prophecy, for "the abandonment of the land can refer either to the campaign of Tiglath-Pileser in 732 or to the successive deportations which occurred in Samaria (722-21) and in Judah (597 and 586)" (ibid.
, 147). So Rico interprets this v. as speaking about one country 'the land (Judah) whose two kings you hate, that land will be abandoned.' \
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________) The 'El-Gibbôr Oracle (Isaiah 9) Isaiah 9:1-2
The word כִּ֣י in 9:1 continues the thought of Isa. 8:19-22. "Zebulun and the land of Naphtali"
were the first to fall to the Assyrians "in the former time
." "Galilee of the Nations"
is a phrase that is unique in the Hebrew Bible. No one else who mentions Galilee in the Hebrew Bible "found it necessary to call attention to Gentiles" (J. Motyer Alec, The Prophecy of Isaiah
, kindle loc. 3002). But the authors of the Hebrew Bible conceived of a Messiah for the entire world, not just Israel (see below//Isa. 11:4, 10)! "The people"
include gentiles and is alluded to in Isaiah 11:10 ("the peoples"), which no doubt refers to gentiles. Isaiah 9:2 also picks up on an important theme from Isaiah 2:2-5 by picking up the imagery of light: "let us walk in the light of the Lord" (Isa. 2:5). The literary echoes picked up from Isa. 2:2-4 makes Isa. 2:5 function as an "exhortation to the house of Jacob to imitate the nations in their conversion from idols to the true God. This has the literary effect of associating the imagery of light in 2:5 with the revelation of God to the nations in 2:2-4" (James P. Ware, Paul and the Mission of the Church
, pp. 57). Since Isaiah 2 envisioned gentiles walking in the light of the LORD, so too does Isaiah 9:2.
As Isaiah 9 picks up on themes from Isaiah 2, Isaiah 11:9-10 does the same thing with both Isaiah 9 and 2. All "these intertextual connections link the dawning of the light upon the mixed gentile populace of northern Israel (“Galilee of the nations”) in Isaiah 9 . . . with the conversion of the gentiles envisioned in 11:9-10" (ibid.
Many interpret these verses as referring to an end to war (or a victory from a battle with the Assyrians) and a return of the exiles from northern Israel in connection with the advent of the Davidide. But neither options are being communicated literally. Christopher Seitz writes: "the cause for joy is not so much pending military victory but the “birth” of a new ruler" (Seitz, Isaiah 1-3
9, pp. 147). Supporting this interpretation is the "for" construction (starting in Isa. 9:3) leading up to the birth of the "Son." So the joy experienced from "the people" due to the coming of the "Son" is like
or is compared
to the joy over a return from exile or the conquering of Israel's enemies.
Many dispute seeing Jesus in this passage because of the detail of the "Son" having the "authority" on his shoulders. I guess the question for one would have to be: what 'authority' do the authors of the New Testament have for you? The writers of the NT affirm that the ascension of Jesus to the right hand of God's throne is the assumption of the government/authority upon his shoulders. In fact, Psalm 110 is the most quoted Psalm in the NT.
I will now go into the titles given to the "Son." Here, an unspecified group of people call the "Son" God. "Wonderful Counselor"
Markus Zehnder notes that, whenever
Isaiah "uses the root פלא, either in the form of the noun פלא ("wonder”) or the verb פלא in the hiphil
conjugation (“to work wonders”), it is used with God as the subject of the wonders" (Zehnder, "The Question of the “Divine Status of the Davidic Messiah," Bulletin for Biblical Research
, pp. 497). The root פלא thus strictly relates to the realm of divine action in Isaiah. Markus Zehnder also writes that: "In two of the three instances, פלא is combined with the root יעץ ("counsel”), exactly as we find it in Isa 9:5, and in both instances it is clear that it is God himself who is designated as a “wonder-counselor" (Isa 25:1; 28:29)" (ibid.
, 497). H.G.M. Williamson adds:
The root יָעָ֖ץ, whether as verb or noun, is also used in relation to God at 14.24, 27; 19.12, 17; 23.9
(Williamson, Isaiah 6-12
, pp. 399)
The same exact words, 'ēl gibbôr,
is applied for YHWH Himself in 10:20-21 - the very next chapter that follows Isaiah 9. Outside of the verse in question, 'ēl gibbôr
is a "divine designation which is never used elsewhere for a human being" (Williamson, Isaiah 6-12
[ICC, 2018], pp. 399). See Deut. 10:17 and Jer. 32:18 for example. There is one example from Ezekiel 32:21, a text written 120+ years after Isa. 9:6-7, where a modified form of 'ēl gibbôr
is not used for YHWH, but for mighty warriors. However, unlike Isaiah 9:6; 10:21 (and Deut. 10:17 and Jer. 32:18), the term in Ezekiel is "plural and overtly linked in a genitive relation" (J. Alec Motyer, The Prophecy of Isaiah
, pp. 105). H.G.M. Williamson says that "it is difficult to relate the plural in any direct way with the name/title in our verse" (Williamson, Isaiah 6-12
[ICC, 2018], pp. 399, n. 121). The usage of the phrase in Isa. 10:20-21 is much more illuminating than the text in Ezekiel anyway.
The use of "Father" for the Israelite king is unattested (the king was rather usually designated as YHWH's son). See also the use of "Father" for YHWH in Isa. 63:16 and 64:7. Interesting is Isaiah 1:2-3, where "the fatherhood of God underlies the opening metaphor of the book" (Williamson, Isaiah 6-12
, pp. 400). The notion of eternity further supports the divinity of the "Son." \
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________) The Stump of Jesse Oracle (Isaiah 11)
Space precludes in-depth analysis of this oracle. Here you have an outstanding and deep Christian-like understanding of how the Spirit is resting upon Messiah (Isa. 11:2), as it does with Jesus in the NT. The text also clearly speaks of a person who obeys YHWH in righteousness who will be sought after by the gentiles (Isa. 11:10, 12) in a new spiritual exodus (Isa. 11:11-16), and this surely fits Jesus. \
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________) The Servant of the LORD
While the Servant is identified as Jacob-Israel as a collective outside of the Songs (Isaiah 41:8, 9; 43:10; 44:1, 2, 21; 45:4; 48:20), the nation of Israel is revealed within the dynamic movement of the Servant Songs
as being embodied and reduced down to one suffering Messianic individual figure. In other words, the Servant never departs from being Israel, but "Israel" undergoes an extreme reduction within Second Isaiah, and it seems to me that it's reduced to one person - "a faithful embodiment of the nation Israel who has not performed its chosen role (48:1–2)" (Brevard S. Childs, Isaiah
, pp. 541 [kindle version]). To see how Isaiah 49:3 is not in contradiction with an individual interpretation of the Servant, see Jaap Dekker's 2012 article here
(pp. 38-39). Joseph Blenkinsopp also writes:
Ever since Christopher R. North surveyed the range of opinion on the identity of the Servant in 1948 (2d ed., 1956), no significant new options have emerged. While there was then and still is a strong critical preference for an individual rather than a collective interpretation, none of the fifteen individuals named as candidates by one commentator or another and listed by North has survived scrutiny (Blenkinsopp, Isaiah 40-55, pp. 355).
There are many reasons to think that the nation of Israel has been reduced down to one person within the Servant Songs themselves, one of them being Isaiah 49:5-6, where the Servant has a mission to
- The Speaker: An "objection to an identification of the Servant in the songs with corporate Israel is the observation that throughout Isaiah whenever the pronouns ‘we,’ ‘our,’ or ‘us’ are introduced abruptly, as in 53:1ff. (that is, without an explicit identification of the speakers, as in 2:3; 3:6; 4:1; etc.), it is always the prophet speaking on behalf of the people of Israel with whom he identifies (1:9f.; 16:6; 24:26; 33:2, 20; 42:24; 59:9-12; 63:15-19; 64:3-11; etc.)" (G.P. Hugenberger, “The Servant of the Lord in the ‘Servant Songs’ of Isaiah: A Second Moses Figure,” pp. 6-7). While there are verbal and conceptual links between 52:15 and 53:1, causing some scholars to think that the nations and kings of Isaiah 52:15 speak here, there is an important point of contrast, as J.L. Koole writes: “Those referred to in [52:15] have not ‘heard’, while the speakers of 53:1 have” (J.L. Koole, Isaiah 49-55, pp. 275). Lastly, Brevard S. Childs observes that: "the confessing ‘we’ of the Old Testament is always Israel and not the nations (Hos. 6:1ff.; Jer. 3:21ff.; Dan. 9:4ff.)" (Childs, Isaiah, pp. 581). This last point by Childs is decisive. The “we” refers to the prophet on behalf of Israel elsewhere in Isaiah (e.g., Isa. 16:6; 24:16; 42:24; 64:4–5)
- "My people": My people" (or "his people") in Isaiah 53:8 refer to Jewish people, since "my people" (minus one instance regarding Egypt in Isaiah 19:25) is always applied to the Jewish people in the book of Isaiah, and always is in Second Isaiah (e.g., 1:3; 3:12, 15; 5:13; 10:2, 24; 14:25; 21:10; 22:4; 26:20; 32:13, 18; 40:1; 43:20; 47:6; 51:4; 52:4, 5, 6). Likewise, "his people" always refers to Israel or it's people in the context of the entire book of Isaiah (e.g., 3:14 5:25; 7:2; 11:11, 16; 14:32; 25:8; 28:5; 30:26; 49:13; 51:22; 52:9). In 53:8, "he" (the Servant") is thus distinguished from "my people" or "his people" - Israel.
- The Righteous Servant: The description of the Servant as being untainted with violence or being without deceit is impossible to reconcile with the OT's or even Second Isaiah's description of Israel as a nation or a people. As noted by G.P. Hugenberger, “Deutero-Isaiah repeatedly stresses that contemporary Israel is a sinful people who suffer on account of their own transgressions (42:18-25; 43:22-28; 47:7; 48:18f.; 50:1; 54:7; 57:17; 59:2ff.)" (Hugenberger, “The Servant of the Lord in the ‘Servant Songs’ of Isaiah,” pp. 4).
If one can show that the Servant is an individual, than Messianic interpretations are easy to make given the intertextuality shared between the Servant in Second Isaiah and the Messiah in First Isaiah (and other Messianic texts in the Hebrew Bible). Fine Old Testament scholars have made and still make strong arguments for some sort of messianic interpretation of the Servant Songs within Isaiah, or at least Isaiah 52:13-53:12.
The Deity of the Servant
Wilcox and Paton Williams observe: "throughout Isaiah 1–66, the adjectives “exalted”, “lifted up” and “very high” are virtually technical terms, applied almost exclusively to Yahweh" (Peter Wilcox and David Paton-Williams, ‘The Servant Songs in Deutero-Isaiah’, JSOT
], pp. 95). Isaiah 52:13 and 57:15 can be shown to be dependent on Isaiah 6:1, which means that the Servant is YHWH. So Jaap Dekker writes: “the intertextual connection with 6.1 reveals that the Servant is granted the highest possible position, which according to the book of Isaiah, however, exclusively belongs Holy One Himself . . . Therefore, the Day of the Lord is and against all that is lifted up and high (2.12; 2.11a, 17a; 10:12) . . . The theology of these text is clear and unambiguous. Being high and lofty (2.11, 17; 6:11) or arising and lifting oneself up (33.10; cf. 30.18) are only apropos of God and are not appropriate for any earthly power whatsoever (cf. 14.13; see also 37.23)” (Jaap Dekker, “The High and Lofty One Dwelling in the Heights and with his Servants: Intertextual Connections of Theological Significance between Isaiah 6, 53 and 57,” Journal for the Study of the Old Testament
, pp. 485-86). Thus, the Servant shares the glory of YHWH which however only belonged to God in Second Isaiah (Isaiah 42:8; 48:11). ‘I will give my glory to no other." Yet in Isaiah 52:13, Mark Gignilliat writes that: "the Servant is narratively depicted as one who is sharing in what belongs to YHWH alone, that is, his glory" (Mark Gignilliat "Who is Isaiah's Servant? Narrative identity and theological potentiality," Scottish Journal of Theology
, pp. 132).
The New Law and Covenant from the Servant of YHWH: Isaiah 42:4, 6 and 49:1, 8
These texts reveal that the Servant will give teachings to the world (Isa. 42:4; 49:1) and be a covenant for the people. Actually, Isaiah 42:4 is better rendered as "law," since the Hebrew word used (tôrātô) means "his Torah." Thus, the Servant brings a new
law, discontinuities with the Mosaic law. In Isaiah 42:6, it is also revealed that the Servant will be "given . . . as a covenant to the people." This parallels Jeremiah 31:31-34, where there is a new law and a new covenant, a covenant with a clear discontuity with the old Law of Moses in such a way as to render the law of Moses as merely a foreshowing of this new work of YHWH to come
. Jeremiah 31:32 says:
"It [the new covenant] will not be like the covenant that I made with their ancestors when I took them by the hand to bring them out of the land of Egypt . . ."
"Not be like" is an absolute negation. Thus, "the phrase . . . does not suggest a renewal of the Mosaic covenant here" (Fẹmi Adeyẹmi, The New Covenant Torah in Jeremiah and the Law of Christ in Paul
, Peter Lang, 2006, pp. 51). Notice also a forgiveness of sins at the end of the oracle in Jeremiah 31:34, which comes just by merely "know[ing] the LORD"! Keep in mind that Jer. 31 is placed in-between three different Messianic oracles (Jer. 23:5-8; 30:7-10; 33:14-22) and is related to them, confirming the role of the Messiah in this new covenant and new law. This is well into Christian territory here.
Reading the Servant Songs Too Rigidly
Many people read the language in the Servant Songs too rigidly. For example, many point to Isaiah 42:2, which says:
He will not shout or cry out, or raise his voice in the streets.
But Jesus clearly did teach and preach in the "streets." First of all, a literal translation of the Hebrew would read: "he will not cry out nor lift, and he will not cause his voice to be heard out of the door." The sense of the text is merely that he will not seek attention for himself during his ministry. It would make no sense to take the English translations in a sense of the Servant not teachings in the streets and towns, because the Servant is a teacher who has teachings that the coastlands wait for (Isa. 42:4). One has to bear in mind that the Servant Songs are poems
. Another good example of a text that is read too rigidly would be:
He was oppressed, and he was afflicted, yet he did not open his mouth . . . (Isa. 53:7).
The prophet is describing the Servant taking on a vocation similar to that of the Psalter when the author says the Servant will not 'open his mouth' when oppressed. "To open the mouth" to speak is a common phrase, and the expression occurs most commonly in the Psalms where it is used for those who accept their sufferings as deserved and see a purpose in it (Ps. 38:4f., 19; 39:12). Thus, they don't curse or taunt those who persecute them. Servant is put on par with these figures in the Psalms. The one reference to Jesus saying "my God my God why have your forsaken me" does not refute this, for he was merely appealing to Psalm 22:1 there. \
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________) Appendix: Is The "Son" in Isaiah 7 and 9 Hezekiah?
Many think that the child of Isaiah 7 and 9 is Ahaz's son, Hezekiah. However, the equation of Hezekiah with the "Son" in Isa. 7 and 9 is specious:
- Hezekiah is not mentioned anywhere in the immediate literary context.
- Hezekiah was already born according to the historical context. J.J. Collins writes: "According to 2 Kgs 18.10, the fall of Samaria (722/721 BCE) was in the sixth year of Hezekiah, but according to v. 13 in the same chapter, the campaign of Sennacherib in 701 BCE was in his 14th year . . . Accordingly, his date of accession is variously given as 728/27 or 715 BCE. In 2 Kgs 18.1 we are told that he was 25 years old when he came to the throne, and if this is correct he would have been born too early on either date of accession" (J.J. Collins, "The Sign of Immanuel," in Prophecy and Prophets in Ancient Israel, 2010, pp. 232). See also Antti Laato, "Isaiah in Ancient, Medieval, and Modern Jewish Traditions," in The Oxford Handbook of Isaiah, 2020, pp. 511: "Hezekiah cannot be identified with Immanuel."
- It would be awkward if Isaiah saw Hezekiah as Immanuel or the "Son" of Isaiah 9. As Antti Laato points out, "Hezekiah rebelled against Assyria. This political decision was, according to Isaiah, nothing but filth in the eyes of the Lord (Isa 30,1-5; 31,1-3)" - Antti Laato, "History and ideology in the old testament prophetic books," Scandinavian Journal of the Old Testament, 1994, pp. 294. Isa. 22:1-14; 32:9-14 also show that Isaiah son of Amoz was very critical with Judah's foreign policy under Hezekiah (see Antti Laato, "Understanding Zion Theology in the Book of Isaiah," in Studies in Isaiah, History, Theology, and Reception, Bloomsbury, 2017, pp. 31, 42-43).
- Details within Isaiah 7-11 reveal the boy to be the future Messiah, not Hezekiah.
- There is no evidence of Isaiah viewing Hezekiah as deity, as the "Son" is.
(6) The author of Isaiah 36-39 thought Hezekiah was not the fulfillment of the oracles in Isaiah 7-11. Jacob Stromberg writes for example:
Hezekiah, having been told that “days” (ימים) are coming when his kingdom will be dismantled by the Babylonians, responds by noting that “there will be peace [שלום] and security in my days" (39:8 → 38:3) . . . This, the last line of the story, seems carefully calculated to tell the reader that, although Hezekiah had earlier looked like the fulfillment of the days anticipated by 9:1–7, in the end, he was not: the scope of peace (שלום) in those days would be “without end” (9:7).
(Stromberg, "The Book of Isaiah: Its Final Structure," in The Oxford Handbook of Isaiah
, 2020, pp. 25-26).
Isaiah 39 overall has a negative view of Hezekiah as well. It is thus most important to note that Isaiah 38 and 39 are not in chronological order. Given this, it is striking that in Isaiah 38, Hezekiah at last puts his trust in YHWH alone, unlike Ahaz. But in Isaiah 39, we are presented with 'bad Hezekiah" who trusts in his wealth. As Sehoon Jang points out, by purposely switching the chronology of the story by ending with a negative portrayal of Hezekiah, the author of Isaiah 36-39 is implying that Hezekiah was not the coming king prophesied in the royal oracles of Isaiah 6-12.
This is because, as noted above, the author of Isaiah 36-39 at first leads on the reader to think that Hezekiah was the fulfillment of the royal oracles. For this argument further fleshed out, see:
- Sehoon Jang, "Is Hezekiah a Success or a Failure?," Journal for the Study of the Old Testament, 2017, pp. 132-133.
While Hezekiah was thought of as a better king, he wasn't good enough (and not as good as Josiah, per 2 Kings 23:25).
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